过去分词作状语

过去分词作状语

观察】 观察下列句子中过去分词的用法,然后加以总结。

  1. Discussed many times, the problems were settled at last.
  2. Looked at from a distance, the painting seems much more beautiful.
  3. Caught in the rain on my way home, I had a bad cold.
  4. Built thirty years ago the house still looks very beautiful.
  5. The professor, followed by his assistants, walked out of the hall.
  6. She sat by the window alone, lost in thought.
  7. Satisfied with what he did, the teacher praised him in class.
  8.  He rushed into the room, his face covered with sweat.

过去分词可作定语、状语、表语和宾语补足语。过去分词作状语应注意以下几点:

一、过去分词作状语表示的意义

  • 表示时间(如例句1)、条件(如例句2)、原因(如例句3)、让步(如例句4) 的分词短语相当于相对应的状语从句。

After they had been discussed many times, the problems were settled at last.

If it is looked at from a distance, the painting seems much more beautiful.

Because I was caught in the rain on my way home, I had a bad cold.

Although it was built thirty years ago, the house still looks very beautiful.

  • 作方式状语或表示伴随情况,说明动作发生的背景或情况。一般情况下,分词所表示的动作和谓语动词所表示的动作同时发生。可转化成并列句。(如例句5-6)

The professor walked out of the hall and he was followed by his assistants.

She sat by the window alone, and she was lost in thought.

二、过去分词与句子主语之间的关系

  • 过去分词作状语表示被动或完成的动作。其逻辑主语一般应与句子的主语一致。过去分词与句子主语之间通常存在逻辑上的动宾关系。(如例句1-5)

【难点点拨】 分词作状语时,用现在分词还是过去分词,取决于分词与句子主语之间的关系。主动关系用现在分词,被动关系用过去分词。比较:

Seeing from the top floor, we can find the garden more beautiful.

Seen from the top floor, the garden looks more beautiful.

  • 有些过去分词或短语来源于系表结构,或某些动词后面加-ed转化来的形容词,作状语时不表被动而表主语的状态。常见的有lost(如例句6), seated, hidden, lost in, dressed in, faced with, absorbed in, surprised,

三、过去分词的独立主格结构作状语

如果过去分词的逻辑主语与句子的主语不一致,这种带逻辑主语的过去分词结构属于独立主格结构,作状语,表示时间、原因、条件、方式、伴随等(如例句10)。

【巩固练习】

Ⅰ. 用所给动词的正确形式填空。

  1. The boy sat at his desk, his right hand     (raise).
  2.    (praise) by his teacher, Tom worked even harder.
  3. The cup fell down to the ground,     (break).
  4.     (face) with this situation, they felt both joy and fear.
  5. Young students should go and work where       (need).
  6.     (taste) delicious, the bread in this shop was sold out soon.
  7.     (seat) at the table, my father and I were talking about my job.
  8.     (grow) in rich soil, these seeds can grow fast.

Ⅱ. 同义句转换(每空一词)。

  1. As he was surrounded by a group of young people, the old man felt happy.

            a group of young people, the old man felt happy.

  1. When he was asked what had happened, he lowered his head.

      what had happened, he lowered his head.

            what had happened, he lowered his head.

  1. Bob sat on his chair and he was completely absorbed in a magazine.

→ Bob sat on his chair,                   a magazine.

  1. I won’t attend his birthday party unless invited.

→ I won’t attend his birthday party unless                  .

  1. After the problem was settled, the meeting came to an end.

                 , the meeting came to an end.

参考答案:

Ⅰ. 1. raised     2. Praised    3. broken

  1. Faced    5. needed     6. Tasting
  2. Seated    8. Grown

Ⅱ. 1. Surrounded by    2. Asked; When asked

  1. completely absorbed in 4. I am invited
  2. The problem settled

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