little和a little表肯定意义与否定意义分类理解

littlea little表肯定意义与否定意义分类理解
little a little 都只用于修饰或代替不可数名词,它们表肯定意义与否定意义的基本原则如下:
1. 单独使用的 little,它在形式上是肯定的,但在意义上却是否定的,其意为“很少”“几乎没有”。如:
Music has little appeal for me. 音乐引不起我的兴趣。
This coal leaves little ash. 这种煤烧过后灰少。
Jazz music has little attraction for me. 爵士音乐对我没有什么吸引力。
Her speech has produced little effect on the listeners. 她的演讲没对听众产生什么影响。
The argument carries little conviction to Western readers. 这个论点对西方读者没有什么说服力。
There was little disagreement on how to proceed. 关于如何进行,几乎没有异议。
Your account of the accident has little correspondence with the story John told. 你对这个故事的叙述和约翰所讲的很不一样。
注:little 用作副词修饰动词时,也表否定意义;若用于句首,其后要用倒装语序。如:
Little did I dream of succeeding so well. 我做梦也想不到会这样成功。/
We little believed that he would harm us. 我们一点也不相信他会伤害我们。
2. 带不定冠词的 a little 表示肯定意义,其意为“一点儿”。如:
What’s the harm in having a little fun? 开点玩笑有什么不好?
Do you think a little salt would improve the flavor. 你看搁点盐能不能提味?
I enjoy a little light reading when I go away on holiday. 我去度假时喜欢看一点消遣读物。
You know what? I think I’ve found a way to make a little money. 我告诉你吧,我已想到一个赚点钱的办法。
Go to bed now and let the grown-ups have a little time to themselves. 现在去睡觉吧,让大人有点时间做自己的事。
I can speak a little Frenchbut as to write it, it’s another story. 我可以说一点点法语,但至于写,那就完全是另外一回事了。
3. few前使用了定冠词、物主代词或其他限定词时,则不表否定意义。如:
The little we do know about the people who lived here suggests they had a very sophisticated society. 我们对曾生活在这儿的人们所掌握不多的材料显示出他们有一个非常复杂的社会。
The little information that we could glean about them was largely contradictory. 我们能够收集到的有关它们的少量信息大部分是自相矛盾的。
Here they are, taking away what little we have. 他们来到这里,拿走了我们仅有的一点东西。
I spent what little time I had with my family. 我仅有的一点时间都是与家人在一起度过的。
4. 注意:not a little 的意思不是“很少”,而是“不少”或“相当多”,它与quite a little, a good little 大致同义。如:
It has given me not a little trouble. 这给带来不少麻烦。
She spent not a little money on clothes. 她花了相当多的钱来买衣服。
We were not a little surprised at what we saw. 我们看到那一幕时,非常地惊讶。
5. 注意不要混淆 little 表示“小”和“少”。表示“小”,后接可数名词,其前可用 such 修饰;表示“少”,后接不可数名词,其前不能用 such 修饰,但可用so。如:
It’s natural that such little animals eat so little food. 很自然,那样小的动物吃那样少的食物。

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