关系代词that与which的区别是什么

关系代词thatwhich的区别是什么
 
thatwhich用作关系代词时都可以指物,常可互换。两者的区别是:
1. 通常要用which的场合:
①引导非限制性定语从句时,通常只用which。如:
Water, which is a clear liquid, has many uses. 水是一种清澈的液体,有许多用途。
which在此引导的是非限制性定语从句,故不可换成that
②直接放在介词后作宾语时,通常只用which。如:
I admired the patience with which she spoke. 她说话有极大的耐心,我很钦佩。
直接用作介词with之后作宾语,只能用which,不能用that
2. 通常要用that的场合:
①当先行词是much, little, none, all, few, every(thing), any(thing), no(thing) 等不定代词或受其修饰时,通常用that。如:
We havent got everything that you ordered. 你要的,我们不是样样都有。
All that remains for me to do is to say goodbye. 剩下我所要做的就是告辞了。
第一句中的定语从句that you ordered修饰不定代词everything,第二句中的定语从句that remains for me to do修饰不定代词all。两个定语从句中的that都不宜换成which
②当先行词the very, the only, the same 等修饰时,通常用that。如:
This is the only example that I know. 我知道的例子只有这一个。
Those are the very words that he used. 那是他的原话。
受定语从句修饰的examplewords前分别有the onlythe very修饰,故要定语从句要用that来引导。另外注意,第二句中的the very不是表示“很”,而是表示“正是”“恰是”,very在此为形容词,而不是副词。
③当先行词有形容词最高级或序数词(包括last, next)等修饰时,通常用that。如:
This is the best hotel that I know. 这是我知道的最佳旅馆。
The first thing that you should do is to work out a plan. 你应该做的第一件事是订个计划。
④当关系代词在定语从句中用作表语时,通常用that。如:
China is not the country (that) it was. 中国已不是过去的样子了。
that it was为修饰名词the country的定语从句,that在定语从句中用作连系动词was的表语,此时可以省略,但不宜换成which
⑤当先行词是一个既指人又指物的并列词组时,通常用that。如:
The train ran over a boy and his dog that were just crossing the track. 火车压死了正穿越轨道的一个男孩和他的狗。
定语从句that were just crossing the track修饰的不只是his dog,而是a boy and his dog,由于它既包含有人也包含物,故用that
⑥当要避免重复时。如:
Which is the car that overtook us? 超过我们的是哪辆车?
由于句首用了which,所以后面修饰the car的定语从句that overtook us要用that来引导,而不用which,目的是为了避免与句首which的重复。

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