表示“两者”的不定代词用法说明

表示“两者”的不定代词
 
英语中有三个不定代词,它们只用于两者,不用于表示三者。这三个不定代词是 both, either, neither。这三个不定代词在中考英语考题中经常被考查到,且很容易出错,所以同学们应引起高度注意。
both, either, neither 这三个不定代词都用来谈论两者,其中both 意为“(两者)都”, either意为“(两者中)任意一个”,neither 意为“(两者)都不”。若要指三者或三者以上,分别用 all 意为“(三者)都”,any 意为“(三者中)任何一个”,none 意为“(三者)都不”等。比较:
He has two sons; both of them are clever.
He has three sons; all of them are clever.
He has two sons; either of them is clever.
He has three sons; any of them is clever.
He has two sons; neither of them is clever.
He has three sons; none of them are clever.
■这三个表示“两者”的不定代词除用作代词,还可用作形容词。注意,用作形容词时,both 后接复数名词,而 either neither 之后要接单数可数名词。如:
Both of the brothers are here. / Both brothers are here. 兄弟俩都在这儿。
Either of the books will do. / Either book will do. 两本书中哪一本都行。
Neither of the stories is interesting. / Neither story is interesting. 两个故事都没有趣。
注:不定代词 both, either, neither 用作主语时,both 之后的谓语动词总是复数,either neither 后的谓语动词通常用单数。
■这三个词都可用作连词,但搭配和意义各不相同。总的说来,要注意它们应连接两个平行对等的句子成分(即同为两个主语、谓语、宾语、状语等)
bothand 表示两者兼有,其意为“……和……”。如:
She was both tired and hungry. 她又累又饿。
He speaks both English and French. 他既说英语又说法语。
eitheror 表示两者或两种可能性中任择其一,其意为“要么……要么”“或者……或者……”。如:
He must be either mad or drunk. 他不是疯了就是醉了。
You can either write or phone to request a copy. 你可以写信可打电话来索取一本。
neithernor 表示两者都否定,其意为“既不……也不……”。如:
It’s neither cold nor hot. 天气既不冷也不热。
He neither knows or cares what happened. 他对所发生的事既不知道也不关心。
注:以上连词连接主语时,bothand…一般只与复数谓语连用,eitheror…和 neithernor 则通常根据就近原则,要求谓语动词与最邻近主语的人称、数保持一致。如:
Either you or I am wrong. 不是你错就是我错。
Neither he nor she was at home. 他和她都不在家。
■注意下面两组同义句:
两边都有商店。
正:There are shops on both sides.
正:There are shops on either side.
两个我都不要。
正:I want neither of them.
正:I don’t want either of them.

Leave a Reply

电子邮件地址不会被公开。 必填项已用*标注