不定代词用法说明

不定代词用法说明

一、不定代词概说
英语的 all, each, both, either, neither, one, none, little, few, many, much, other, another, some, any, no, (a) few, (a) little, both, enough, every 等,以及由 some, any, no every 构成的合成代词(somebody, anyone, nothing )。在这些不定代词中,多数都能作主语、宾语、表语或定语,但是代词 none 以及由 some, any, no every 构成的合成代词只能作主语、宾语或表语,不能作定语,而 no every 则只用作定语。

二、指两者和三者的不定代词
有些不定代词用于指两者(both, either, neither),有的不定代词用于指三者(all, any, none, every),注意不要弄混:
Both of my parents are doctors. 我的父母都是医生。
All of the students are interested in it. 所有的学生对此都很感兴趣。
There are trees on any side of the square. 广场的每一边都种有树。
He has two sons, neither of whom is rich. 他有两个儿子,都不富有。
He has three sons, none of whom is rich. 他有三个儿子,都不富有。
【说明】each 可用于两者、三者或三者以上,而 every 只用于三者或三者以上,因此用于两者时只能用 each,不能用 every。如不能说 There are trees on every side of the road.

三、复合不定代词的用法特点
复合不定代词包括 something, somebody, someone, anything, anybody, anyone, nothing, nobody, no one, everything, everybody, everyone 等。它们在句中可用作主语、宾语或表语,但不能用作定语。something, someone 等和 anything, anyone等的区别与 some any 的区别一样,前者一般用于肯定句,后者一般用于否定句、疑问句或条件句(参见 any & some)。具体使用时应注意以下几点:
1. 复合不定代词受定语修饰时,定语应放在它们后面:
There is nothing wrong with the radio. 这收音机没有毛病。
Have you seen anyone [anybody] famous?  你见过名人吗?
2. 指人的复合不定代词若用作主语,其谓语动词一般用单数,相应的人称代词和物主代词也用单数 he, him, his (不一定指男性)。但在非正式文体中常用复数代词 they, them, their
Everyone knows this, doesn’t he [don’t they]? 人人都知道这一点,不是吗?
If anybody [anyone] comes, ask him [them] to wait. 要是有人来,让他等着。
3. 指事物的复合不定代词若用作主语,谓语动词只能用单数,相应的人称代词也只能用 it,而不用 they
Everything is ready, isn’t it?  一切都准备好了,是吗?
4.  anyone, everyone 等只能指人,不能指物,且其后一般不接of 短语。若是指物或后接 of 短语,可用 any one, every one (分开写)
any one of the boys (books) 孩子们()当中的任何一个()
every one of the students (schools) 每一个学生(一所学校)

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