定语从句的8个易错点

定语从句的8个易错点,我们一起来看一看
 
一、混淆定语从句与并列句
有的句子结构相似,相差的可能只是一个并列连词,同学们若忽略此并列连词,则可能混淆定语从句与并列句。请看下面两道试题:
1. He has two children, and both of ______ are abroad.
A. them                 B. which                C. whom                D. who
2. He has two children, both of ______ are abroad.
A. them                 B. which                C. whom                D. who
【分析】1题选A,第2题选C。由于第1题中用了并列连词and,从而使整个句子为并列句,and后应是一个独立的简单句,所以选A不选C;第2题没有并列连词andboth of whom are abroad为非限制性定语从句。另外,请比较:
He has two children, both of ______ being abroad.
A. them                 B. which                C. whom                D. who
【分析】此题选A,尽管句中没有并列连词,但由于逗号后并不是一个完整的句子(因句中的 being 为非谓语动词)
二、混淆定语从句与表语(从句)
一般说来,若是定语从句,其前必有先行词;若是表语(从句),则其前必有连系动词。但问题是,有时由于句子结构比较特殊,定语从句与其修饰的先行词可能被分离,而连系动词与其后的表语也可能被分离,这就需要同学们认真分析,理顺句子结构(最好能还原句子),从而分清是定语从句还是表语(从句)。请看下面两道试题:
1. Your coat is still ______ you left it.( www.52yufa.com)
A. where               B. there                  C. there where     D. the place where
【分析】答案选Awhere引导的是表语从句(=……的地方),而不是定语从句。
2. Is this school ______ your father worked in ten years ago?
A. where               B. what                  C. that                    D. the one
【分析】答案选Dthis school为句子主语,the one 为表语,your father worked in…为定语从句。不要误认为this是句子主语,否则school前应加冠词the
三、混淆定语从句与状语从句
有些试题,从表面看它是定语从句,而实际上它是状语从句;而有些试题则可能完全相反,即从表面看它是状语从句,而实际上是定语从句。请看下面两道试题:
1. I went upstairs ______I heard someone crying.
A. where                B. when                 C. that                    D. which
【分析】答案是B而不是Awhen的意思是……的时候,引导的是时间状语从句。(upstairs为副词,不宜用作先行词)
2. He is ______ a clever boy ______ we all like.
A. such, that        B. such, as            C. so, that              D. so, as
【分析】答案选B,而不是Asuch … that …(如此……以致……)用于引导结果状语从句,其中的that不充当句子成分,而such…as…中的as为关系代词,用以引导定语从句并在定语从句充当句子成分。上句中第二空之所以选as,是因为它用作动词like的宾语。
四、混淆关系代词与关系副词
有的同学一看到先行词是表示时间、地点、原因的名词,就认为一定要用关系副词,其实也不一定。在此情况下,还要看关系词在定语从句中是用作什么成分,若是用作状语,则用关系副词;若不是用作状语(如用作主语、宾语等)则不能用关系副词,而用关系代词。比较:
This is the factory where I want to work. 这就是我想工作的工厂。(work为不及物动词,where在定语从句中用作状语)
This is the factory that I want to visit. 这就是我想参观的工厂。(visit为及物动词,that用作visit的宾语)
The reason why he can’t come is that he is ill. 他没来的是因为他病了。(come为不及物动词,why在定语从句中用作状语)
The reason that he put forth is very important. 他提出的理由很重要。(put forth为及物动词,that在定语从句中用作其宾语)
五、因逗号误判which
有的同学一看见逗号,就以为一定要选which而不选that,但问题是有时根本就不是定语从句。如:
1. If a book is in English, ______ means slow progress for you.
A. as                      B. which                C. what                  D. that
2. When I say two hours, ______ includes time for eating.
A. as                      B. which                C. what                  D. that
【分析】以上两题均应选that,而不能选which,因为它们根本不是定语从句。之所以选that,是因为句中已有ifwhen引导的状语从句,逗号后为主句,that为主句主语。
六、混淆whichwhose
两者在定语从句中都可用作定语,区别是:whose 的意思相当于 one’s,而 which 的意思则相当于 that this。比较:
1. This is Mary, whose father we met last week.(ask.yygrammar.com)
2. Call again at 11, by which time the meeting should be over.
【分析】1句用whosewhose father相当于 and her father;第2句用whichby which time 相当于 and by that time
七、弄错定语从句中谓语动词的数
原则上说,定语从句中谓语动词的单复数应与所修饰先行词的单复数保持一致,否则就会出错。如:
谁那样说都是在说谎。
误:Anyone who say that is lying.
正:Anyone who says that is lying.
不算生病的,我们一共20人。
误:There are 20 of us, not counting those who is sick.
正:There are 20 of us, not counting those who are sick.
八、受汉语影响导致定语从句用词累赘或成分残缺
一方面,引导定语从句的关系代词与定语从句修饰的先行词表示同样的概念,因此,千万不可在定语从句中误加与先行词同义的代词;另一方面,也不能受汉语习惯的影响,省去定语从句中不该省略的必要成分。如:
他是一个人人都敬重的人。
误:He is a man that everyone respects him.
正:He is a man that everyone respects.
刚才给我们讲故事的那个人很有趣。
误:The man told us a story just now is very interesting.
正:The man who told us a story just now is very interesting.

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