“介词+which+名词”引导的定语从句讲解

“介词+which+名词”引导的定语从句  
 
■如何理解“介词+which+名词”中的which  
“介词+which+名词”引导定语从句时,其中的 which 含有 this that 的意思。如:  
We arrived at noon, by which time the demonstration was over.= We arrived at noon, and by that time the demonstration was over. 我们是中午到的,这时游行业已结束。  
I may have to work late, in which case I’ll telephone. = I may have to work late, and in that case I’ll telephone. 我可能得晚点下班,那样我会打电话的。  
■“介词+which+名词”中的“名词”可以省略吗  
“介词+which+名词”结构之所以要在which后加上一个适当的名词,其目的有二:  
一是为了使句意更明确。如:  
He lost his temper, at which point I decided to go home. 他发脾气了,这时我就决定回家了。(此句摘自《牛津英语用法指南》;句中之所以在 which 后带上名词 point,是为了使句意明确,如去掉 point 而只说 at which,意思显然会受到影响)  
The questions were all on opera, about which subject I know nothing.  那些问题都是关于歌剧的,我对歌剧一无所知。(此句摘自《牛津高阶英汉双解词典》;句中之所以在 which 后带上名词 subject,是为了使句意明确,如去掉 subject 而只说 at which,意思显然会有所变化)  
二是为了强调(即:如果意思明确仍带上“名词”的话,是为了强调所带名词)。如:  
The picking of the fruit, for which work they receive no money, takes about a week.  采摘水果这项工作没有工资,大约要花1周的时间。(此句摘自《剑桥高级英语词典》;句中 which 后面的名词 work 完全可以删除,而且不影响意思的表达,带上名词 work 是为了强调)  
It was derived from Posidonius, for which reason much of its information may well have been out-of date.  它源于鲍森杜尼尔斯。由于这个原因,它的大部分信息很可能已经过时。(此处摘自柯林斯英语语法系列《限定词及数量词》;句中 which 后面的名词 reason 完全可以删除,而且不影响意思的表达,带上名词 reason 完全是为了强调)  
■涉及“介词+which+名词”的试题分析(一)  
对于你在问题提出的以下试题,分析如下:  
They stayed with me for three weeks, _____ they drank all the wine I had.   
A. which      B. which time      C. during which      D. during which time    
就这道而言,很显然 D 是命题者设定的最佳答案,但 C 也不能算是错误答案。此句在which 后加上名词 time,主要是为了强调,没有它句子完全成立。如以下各句的 during which 后就没有名词 time  
August and September are the months of the year, during which most English people take their holidays. 一年中8月和9月是大多数英国人休假的月份。(摘自王文昌主编的《英语搭配词典》)  
a night during which you do not get much rest (摘自《麦克米伦高阶美语词典》night词条)  
…for all the hours of a week during which it is usual for people to work, study etc.(摘自摘自《朗文当代英语辞典》)  
■涉及“介词+which+名词”的试题分析(二)  
对于你在问题提出的另一试题,分析如下:  
Suzhou, ______we spent last spring,is one of the most beautiful cities in China.   
A. where              B.that                  C. which              D. in which     
此题的选项 A 显然是正确的,但我认为 D 也是对的。如果把 D 改为 in which city,也是对的(但这是比较强调的用法)。  
顺便说一句,上面这句最好不要改为限制性定语从句,因为专有名词前原则上是不用限制性定语从句修饰的(除非所修饰的专有名词不止一个,你用限制性定语从句修饰它是为了将它与其他的区分开来)。如:  
I want the Mr Smith who signed this letter. 我要找在这封信上签名的那位史密斯先生。(摘自《牛津实用英语语法》)
比较:I met Mr. Smith, who told me the news. 我遇见了史密斯先生,他告诉了我这个消息。  

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