一道非常容易出错的定语从句考题分享

一道非常容易出错的定语从句考题分享
 
咱们一起看看下面这道题,名词place后面该用什么关系词来引导定语从句:
He likes living alone, and says that he wants to go and live in a place _________ nobody knows.
A. where                        B. that                        C. when                        D. what
有的同学一看到 place 是表示地点的名词,于是就毫不犹豫地选了A,但是错了,最佳答案应是B。表示地点的名词后到底是用 where 还是用 that which 来引导定语从句,原则上应注意以下两点:
一是看关系词的句法功能。由于 where 是关系副词,它在定语从句中用作状语,而that which 是关系代词,它们在定语从句中用作主语或宾语。所以区别是关系副词还是关系代词的关键就是看定语从句是否缺主语或宾语,若缺主语或宾语则用关系代词,若不缺主语或宾语则用关系副词。比较:
(1) This is the room _________I lived ten years ago.
A. that                        B. where                        C. who                        D. what
(2) This is the room _________I lived in ten years ago.
A. that                        B. where                        C. who                        D. what
(3) This is the room _________I bought ten years ago.
A. that                        B. where                        C. who                        D. what
(4) This is the room _________I visited ten years ago.
A. that                        B. where                        C. who                        D. what
(5) This is the room _________I was born ten years ago.
A. that                        B. where                        C. who                        D. what
(1)题选B,因为 live 是不及物动词,它无需接宾语;第(2)题选A,因为虽然 live 不及物,但live in 却是及物,它应有自己的宾语;第(3)(4)题也应选A,因为 buy visit均为及物动词,它们应有自己的宾语;第(5)应选B,因为 be born 无需有自己的宾语。
二要看句意。一般说来,句子是否缺宾语,主要是看定语从句中的动词是否为及物动词或带有介词等,但问题是有些动词既可用作及物动词,又可用作不及物动词,它是否需要带宾语则要视句意而定。比较:
This is the school where I studied five years ago. 这是我五年前读过书的学校。(句中 study 用作不及物动词,意为学习读书
This is the school that I studied five years ago. 这是我五年前研究过的那所学校。(句中 study 为及物动词,意为研究”)
现在我们回到上面的试题来看一看,从理论上说,动词 know 可用作及物和不及物动词,也就是说它可以带宾语也可以不带宾语。但根据本句的意思(他喜欢一个人生活,并说他要去一个没有知道的地方),know 应为及物动词,因为从语意上它要带 place 作其宾语。

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