英语紧缩定语从句用法讲解

英语紧缩定语从句讲解
 
1. 紧缩定语从句的概念
所谓紧缩定语从句就是指把一个定语从句紧缩成“介词+关系代词+不定式”结构。这类结构主要用于正式文体中。如:
She must have time in which she can grow calm.=She must have time in which to grow calm. 她必须有冷静下来时的时间。
Allow me one minute in which I can change my clothes. =Allow me one minute in which to change my clothes. 给我一点时间换衣服。
He was miserable unless he had neighbors with whom he could quarrel.=He was miserable unless he had neighbors with whom to quarrel. 他要是没有邻居吵架就难受。
She had some money in the bank, with which she could help her mother.=She had some money in the bank, with which to help her mother. 她银行里有些钱用来帮助她的母亲。
2. 紧缩定语从句的省略
若语义清楚,且结构恰当,“介词+关系代词+不定式”结构有时可进一步将其中的关系代词省略,而只保留介词和不定式(介词要移至不定式之后,且当意思明确时,有时可以省略该介词)。如:
She must have time to grow calm (in). 她必须有冷静下来时的时间。
Allow me one minute to change my clothes (in). 给我一点时间换衣服。
He was miserable unless he had neighbors to quarrel with. 他要是没有邻居吵架就难受。
It’s reported that the city needs more land to build houses on. 据报道,这座城市需要更多的土地来建房。
3. 紧缩定语从句的易错点
(1) 不可缺少的介词:并不是所有的定语从句都可以紧缩成“介词+关系代词+不定式”结构的。一般说来,只有当引导定语从句的关系代词用作介词的宾语时,才可以这样用。如:
你和住在隔壁的那个人说过话吗?
正:Have you ever spoken to the man who lives next door?
误:Have you ever spoken to the man who to live next door?
(2) 介词位置:“介词+关系代词+不定式”结构中的介词不仅不能没有,并且该介词也不能放到不定式的后面去。如:
在那儿孩子们有个玩耍的花园( www.52yufa.com)
正:There the children had a garden in which they could play. (定语从句)
正:There the children had a garden in which to play. (紧缩定语从句)
正:There the children had a garden to play in. (不定式作定语)
误:There the children had a garden which to play in.(不能将介词置于不定式之后)

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