定语从句简说

有关定语从句的概念
(1)定语从句:就是在复合句里充当定语的从句,它通常紧靠在所修饰的名词或代词后面。
(2)先行词:就是被定语从句修饰的名词或代词。
(3)关系词:引导定语从句的词叫关系词。关系词有关系代词who, whom, whose, whichthat等;关系副词有when, where, why等。关系词不仅起连接作用,而且还代表先行词并在定语从句中担任某一句子成分,关系代词作主语、宾语、定语、表语等,关系副词作状语。如:
This is the book that my father bought me yesterday. 这就是我父亲昨天帮我买的那本书。
说明:句中修饰the bookthat my father bought me yesterday就是定语从句;被定语从句所修饰的the book这是先行词;代表the book的关系代词that在定语从句中作bought的直接宾语。
The time when he arrives is not known. 他到达的时间还不知道。
说明:句中when he arrives是定语从句,被定语从句修饰的the time是先行词,关系副词when作时间状语。
关系代词的一般用法
先行词是人,在从句中作主语用who,作宾语用whomwho,作定语用whose;先行词是物,在定语从句中作主语或宾语都用which,作定语用of whichwhose均可。在限制性定语从句中which, who, whom都可用that代替。关系代词作宾语时常被省略。
This is the man who helped me yesterday. 这就是昨天帮助我的那个人。(作主语)
The teacher (who/whom/that) you want to see is coming. 你要见的老师来了。(see的宾语,可以省略)
I met a boy whose father was a astronaut. 我认识一位男孩,他的父亲是宇航员。(作定语)
Here is the coat which/that will be made to you. 这是一件做给你的衣服。(作主语)
This is the factory (which/that) we visited last year.这就是我们去年参观的那家工厂。(visited的宾语,可以省略)
He has a book whose cover (=the cover of which) is very beautiful. 他有一本封面非常漂亮的书。
关系副词的一般用法
关系副词有when, where, why,在定语从句中作状语,分别表示时间、地点和原因。when的先行词通常是time, day, season, age, occasion等时间名词;where的先行词通常是place, city, town, village, house, case, situation, scenes等地点或情形名词;why的先行词只能是reason。关系副词whenwhere有时可用“介词+which”代替,why可用for which代替。如:
There are occasions when (=on which) one must yield. 任何人都有不得不屈服的时候。
Beijing is the place where (=in which) I was born. 北京是我的出生地。
Is this the reason why (=for which) he refused our offer? 这就是他拒绝我们帮助他的理由吗?
注意:先行词虽然是时间或地点,但若在定语从句中作主语或宾语时,要用关系代词。
(1)The factory where his father worked has closed. 他父亲曾工作的那家工厂关闭了。(作状语)
比较:The factory which/that was built in 1978 has closed. 1978年建的那家工厂关闭了。(作主语)
(2) I’ll never forget the days when we lived together. 我永远也忘不了我们一起生活的那些日子。(作状语)
比较:I’ll never forget the days (that) we spent in Australia. 我永远也忘不了我们在澳大利亚度过的那些日子。(作及物动词spent的宾语)
(3) The reason (why) she was ill was that she had eaten bad meat. 她生病的原因是她吃了变质的肉。(作状语,用关系副词)
比较:The reason (that) he gave for his absence was obviously fabricated.他所说的缺席理由显然是编造的。(gave的宾语,用关系代词)

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