主谓一致的七种特殊情况

主谓一致的七种特殊情况
 
一、涉及“主语+介词短语”的主谓一致问题
当主语后面带有with, together with, but, like, except, including等介词短语时,谓语与介词短语前的主语保持一致。如:
No one but me knows him here. 除了我这里没有一个人认识他。
My son together with some friends is leaving for Shanghai tonight. 我儿子和几个朋友今晚要去上海。
At least 20 passengers, including a driver were injured in the accident. 至少二十名乘客在事故中受伤,包括一名司机。
二、非谓语动词和从句作主语
不定式、动名词或从句作主语,谓语动词用单数。如:
To know something about English is one thingto know English is quite another. 懂点英语是一回事,掌握英语完全是另一回事。
Walking is good exercise. 走路是很好的运动。
What you need is a good rest. 你需要的是好好休息。
三、指同一人或事物的并列结构作主语
指同一人或事物的A and B 结构(knife and forks刀叉, bread and buttet黄油面包, a teacher and writer老师兼作家,fish and chips鱼和炸土豆片)作主语时,谓语通常要用单数。如:
A worker and writer was present at the meeting. 一位工人作家出席了会议。
Fish and chips is a popular meal in Britain. 鱼和炸土豆片在英国是很受欢迎的膳食。
四、one or two…one / a…or two作主语
one or two +复数名词”作主语,谓语动词用复数;“a / one +单数名词+or two”作主语,谓语动词用单数。如:
Only one or two students were late today. 今天只有一两个同学迟到。
One student or two was late today. 今天只有一两个同学迟到。
五、四则运算中的主谓一致
在四则运算中,谓语动词一般用单数。如:
Three times six is eighteen. 三乘六得十八。
Three and five equals eight. 三加五等于八。
六、定语从句的关系代词作主语
定语从句的关系代词作主语,谓语动词的数与先行词一致。注意:“one of +复数名词+定语从句”中,从句谓语用复数,但若one前有the (only)时,从句谓语动词用单数。如:
Tom is one of the students who were late this morning. 汤姆是今天早上迟到的那些学生中的一个。
Tom is the only one of the students who was late this morning. 在这些学生中汤姆是今天早上唯一迟到的人。
七、强调结构中的主谓一致
在强调结构(it is…that…)中,若强调的是主语,that后面的谓语动词与被强调部分一致。例如:
It is I that am his English teacher. 我就是他的英语老师。
 

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