分词独立主格结构用法说明

分词独立主格结构用法说明
 
(1) 分词的独立主格结构的概念
分词的独立主格结构指的就是一个用作逻辑主语的名词或代词后接一个分词,它在句中主要用作状语。如:
The question being settled, we went home. 问题解决之后,我们就回家了。
The last bus having gone, we had to walk home. 最后一班公车已经走了我们必须走路回家。
(2) 分词的独立主格结构的用法
分词的独立主格结构主要表示谓语动词发生的时间、原因、条件或伴随情况等,相当于一个状语从句或并列句。如:
The work done (=After the work had been done), we went home. 工作完成后,我们就回家了。
Weather permitting (=If weather permits), they will go on an outing to the beach tomorrow. 如果天气允许的话,他们将在明天组织一次海滨小游。
An important lecture to be given tomorrow (=As an important lecture will be given tomorrow), the professor has to stay up late into the night. 因为明天要发表一个重要的演讲,教授不得不熬夜到很晚。
He was lying on the grass, his hands crossed under his head (=and his hands were crossed under his head).他躺在草地上,两手交叉枕在脑后。
A hunter came in, his face red with cold (=and his face was red with cold). 一个猎人走了进来,他的脸冻得通红。
We redoubled our efforts, each man working like two. 我们加倍努力,一个人干两个人的活。
(3) 关于being / having been的省略问题
在许多情况下,独立主格中的现在分词beinghaving been可以省略,而不会改变句意的变化。如:
This (being) done, I set about cleaning the windows. 做完此事,我就开始擦洗窗户。
(Being) seized with a sudden fear, she gave a scream. 她突然感到害怕,叫了一声。
(Being) asked to sing a song for them, she couldn’t very well refuse. 当要求她为他们唱个歌时,她就不好拒绝了。
但是,在下列两种情况下,独立主格结构中的being(或having been)不能省略:
独立主格的逻辑主语是代词时。如:
It being a holiday, all the shops were shut. 由于今天是假日,所有商店都关门了。
There being+名词的结构中。如:
There being no further business, I declared the meeting closed. 由于没有别的事了,我宣布闭会。
 

Leave a Reply

电子邮件地址不会被公开。 必填项已用*标注