分词的独立主格结构的用法

分词的独立主格结构的用法

根据英语习惯,分词用作状语时,它的逻辑主语应与句子主语一致,否则就应改用其他句型。如:
他生病了,我们把他送到了医院。
误:Being ill, we took him to the hospital.
正:Being ill, he was taken to the hospital by us.
句中的“误”句之所以有误,不仅仅是因为这句话与相应的中文不吻合,而且该句本身的意思也是很荒唐的——句中的分词短语being ill为原因状语,按理说它的逻辑主语应该是“我们”,所以该句的实际意思就是:由于我们生病了,所以我们把他送到了医院。如果真是这样,那“我们”得的就是精神病了。因为自己生病,还要把别人送到医院,够荒唐的吧!如果改用上面的“正”句,意思就通顺了——因为他生病了,所以他被我们送到了医院。
除了以上办法之外,还有其他的办法可以解决分词的逻辑主语与句子主语不一致的问题吗?有!我们还可以在分词前加一个名词或代词,使之成为分词的逻辑主语。由于加在分词前的名词或代词要用主格形式,所以我们称这类结构为独立主格结构,如上面一句也可改写为:He being ill, we took him to the hospital. 为了帮助大家理解,我们对这个含有独立主格的句子分析如下:
首先,它是一个简单句,不是复合句,也不是并列句,因为句中的he being ill只是一个用作状语的分词短语,句子只有一个主谓结构,所以它是简单句。
其次,这个句子不能改为:He was ill, we took him to the hospital. 因为这样一来,它就成了两个句子,但句子间却没有相应的衔接方式,所以就错了!
为什么会错了呢?因为,英语句子从结构上看,只有三种类型,即要么是简单句(只有一个主谓结构),要么是并列句(句子之间应有并列连词),要么就是复合句(有相应的主句和从句),除此之外,不存在其他的句子类型。He was ill, we took him to the hospital.这个句子的错误就在于,它既不是简单句(因为它有两个主谓结构),也不是并列句(因为句子间没有并列连词),也不是复合句(句子没有体现出主句和从句)。所以如果我们将这个句子改成以下形式则是完全正确的:
正:He was ill, and we took him to the hospital.
正:He was ill, so we took him to the hospital.
正:Because he was ill, we took him to the hospital.
正:He was ill, so he was taken to the hospital by us.
正:Because he was ill, he was taken to the hospital by us.
为了帮助大家理解,我们再举几个例子来看看:
That day being Sunday, we had no classes. 那天是星期天,我们没有课。
that day being Sunday为独立主格结构,其中的that day为现在分词being Sunday的逻辑主语。如果要将being改为was也可以,那句子就必须处理成并列句或复合句。比较:
That day was Sunday, and we had no classes. 那天是星期天,我们没有课。
That day was Sunday, so we had no classes. 那天是星期天,所以我们没有课。
As that day was Sunday, we had no classes. 由于那天是星期天,所以我们没有课。

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