通过一道高考题来剖析独立主格结构的用法

有这样一道高考题:
The country has already sent up three unmanned spacecraft, the most recent _______ at the end of last March.
A. has been launched                      B. having been launched
C. being launched                            D. to be launched
此题答案为 B。考查独立主格结构的用法。由于句子中没有连词,所以不能选 A。又因为动作于去年的三月底就已经发生,所以不能选表示未来动作的 D 和表示进行动作的 C。
英语中的独立主格结构从语法上看,它是一个独立的成分,而不是句子(因为句中没有谓语),在句中主要用作状语,通常可转换成状语从句。下面谈谈英语独立主格结构的几种常构成方式。
1. 名词或代词+现在分词
名词或代词通常是动作的执行者,与现在分词构成逻辑上的主谓关系,表示主动的或正在进行的动作。如:
She ran up to me, her hair flying in the wind. 她向我跑来,秀发在风中飘扬着。
All this time, they were fast asleep, all of them knowing nothing about what had happened. 那段时间,他们都很快就入睡了,没有人知道发生了什么事。
2. 名词或代词+过去分词
名词或代词是动作的承受者,与过去分词构成逻辑上的动宾关系或系表结构,表示被动或已完成的动作。如:
This done, we went home. 做完此事,我们就回家了。(表时间)
She gazed, her hands clasped to her breast. 她凝视着,双手叉在胸前。(表方式或伴随情况)
Arthur gone, he would only be allowed to make visits like other acquaintances. 阿瑟走后,他就会像其他相识的人一样地被允许来拜访了。(表条件)
As yet few have done their full duty, present company excepted. 迄今全部完成任务的人很少,在座的人除外。(表除外)
3. 名词或代词+不定式
名词或主格代词通常是动作的执行者,与不定式构成逻辑上的主谓关系,表示将要发生的动作,常位于句首或句末。如:
We divided the work, he to dean the window and I to sweep the floor. 我们分了工,他擦窗户,我扫地。(表伴随)
He is leaving for the conference next week, all expenses to be paid by his company. 他下周去参加一个会议,所有费用由他的公司支付。
4. 名词或代词+形容词或副词
形容词或副词常用来说明名词或代词的性质特征或所处的状态。如:
He sat in the front row, his mouth half open. 他坐在前排,嘴半开着。
The people, their livelihood secure, now have the leisure to take up sports. 现在人民生活有了保障,就有时间参加体育活动了( www.52yufa.com)
She sat at the table, collar off, head down, and pen in position, ready to begin the long letter. 她坐在桌前,衣领已解掉,头低了下来,拿好钢笔,准备开始写一封长信。
5.名词或代词+介词短语
介词短语也是用来说明或代词的性质特征或所处的状态。如:
The soldiers dashed in, rifle in hand. 士兵们端着枪冲了进来。
He was waiting, his eyes on her back. 他在等着,眼睛望着她的背影。
The old woman sat down, traces of tears still on her cheeks. 老太太坐了下来,面颊上还带有泪痕。

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