独立主格结构的用法说明

独立主格结构的用法说明
 
一、有关独立主格结构的基本概念
独立主格结构是一个名词或代词(作为逻辑主语),加上一个形容词、副词、介词短语、分词、不定式等在句中作状语。它有以下三个特点:
1. 独立主格结构的逻辑主语与句子的主语不同,它独立存在。
2. 名词或代词与后面的形容词、副词、介词短语、分词、不定式等存在逻辑上的主谓关系。
3. 独立主格结构一般用逗号与主句分开,但与主句之间不能使用任何连接词。
 
二、独立主格结构的常见形式
1. 名词(代词)+现在分词
The question being settled, we went home. 问题解决之后,我们就回家了。
We shall play the match tomorrow, weather permitting. 明天假设天气好,我们就进行比赛。
The monitor being ill, we’d better put the meeting off. 班长病了,我们最好还是延期开会吧。
2. 名词(代词)+过去分词
The job finished, we went home. 工作结束后我们就回家了。
The last bus having gone, we had to walk home. 最后一班公车已经走了,我们必须走路回家。
More time given, we should have done the job much better. 如果给我们更多的时间,我们会把工作做得更好。
3. 名词(代词)+不定式
Nobody to come tomorrow, we will have to put off the meeting till next week. 如果明天没有人来,我们将把会议推迟到下周。
So many people to help him, he is sure to succeed. 有如此多的人来帮助他,他一定会成功的。
4. 名词(代词)+介词短语
The soldiers dashed in, rifle in hand. 士兵们端着枪冲了进来。
A girl came in, book in hand. 一个少女进来了,手里拿着书。
He was waiting, his eyes on her back. 他在等着,眼睛望着她的背影。
5. 名词(代词)+形容词或副词
He sat in the front row, his mouth half open. 他坐在前排,嘴半开着。
She sat at the table, collar off, head down, and pen in position, ready to begin the long letter. 她坐在桌前,衣领已解掉,头低了下来,拿好钢笔,准备开始写一封长信。
6. There being +名词(代词)
There being nothing else to do, we went home. 没有别的事可做,我们就回家了。
There being no further business, I declare the meeting closed. 没有再要讨论的事了,我宣布散会。
7. It being +名词(代词)
It being Christmas, the government offices were closed. 由于圣诞节的缘故,政府机关都休息。
It being a holiday, all the shops were shut. 由于今天是假日,所有商店都关门了。
比较:独立主格结构与由介词 with 引出的复合结构。如:
Don’t sleep with the windows open. 别开着窗睡觉。
He stood before his teacher with his head down. 他低着头站在老师面前。
He was lying on the bed with all his clothes on. 他和衣躺在床上。
She came in with a book in her hand. 她手里拿着一本书走了进来。
He fell asleep with the lamp burning. 他没熄灯就睡着了。
I won’t be able to go on holiday with my mother being ill. 因为妈妈有病,我无法去度假。
He sat there with his eyes closed. 他闭目坐在那儿。
All the afternoon he worked with the door locked. 整个下午他都锁着门在房里工作。
I can’t go out with all these clothes to wash. 要洗这些衣服,我无法出去了。

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