不定冠词(a / an)用法要点汇总

不定冠词(a / an)用法要点汇总
  1. 用a 还是用an:一般说来,在辅音或半元音开头的词前用a, 而在元音开头的词前用an:

The hen laid an egg.  那只母鸡生了个鸡蛋。

She has an inborn love of jokes.  她天生爱开玩笑。

The child has an upset stomach.  这孩子肚子不舒服。

注意:有些以元音字母开头的单词,由于第一个音不是元音而是辅音,其前仍用a而不用an:

He has a university degree in economics.  他取得大学经济学学位。

Italy is a European country. 意大利是个欧洲国家。

The family lived in a one-room shack. 一家人住在一间简陋的小屋里。

  1. 单数可数名词若泛指,其前需加a / an, 不要从汉语习惯出发,漏掉此不定冠词:

伯灵顿拱廊坫伦敦心著名的购物街。

正:Burlington Arcade is a famous shopping place in London.

误:Burlington Arcade is famous shopping place in London.

  1. 专有名词转化为普通名词,其前可用a (an),表示某某人或某某人的一部作品、艺术品等:

There is a Mr Jones to see you, sir.  先生,有一位叫琼斯的先生要见你。

Let’s suppose a Mr So-and-so registers at the hotel. 咱们打个比方吧,有个某某先生来旅馆登记。

When he bought the picture he was told it was a Rubens, but he later found out it was a forgery. 有人告诉他那是鲁宾斯的画,但后来他发现那是赝品。

  1. 物质名词转化为普通名词,其前可以使用a (an),有时表示相应产品或种类,有时表示数量关系:

She knows a good wine when she tastes it. 她只要一尝就能分辨酒的好坏。

I had a coffee and she had a chocolate.  我喝了一杯咖啡,而她喝了 一杯可可。

  1. 在序数词之前使用a (an),可以表示数量或序数的增加:

Soon I saw a second plane. 不久我又看到了一架飞机。

A:This is the second time that I’ve read the book. 这是我第二次看这本书。

B:Do you want to read it a third time? 你还想看第三次吗?

  1. 与形容词的最高级连用,表示“非常”“很”等:

They have embarked on a most interesting new plan.  他们己经着手作一个非常有趣的新计划。

He thanked his host for a most enjoyable party.  他感谢主人请他参加一个非常愉快的聚会。

Gascoigne had received an offer of help from a most unlikely source. 贾斯昆从最意想不到的渠道获得资助。

  1. 用于修饰名词的定语前,表示某种状态。此时的不定冠词含有类似a kind of 的意思:

The island has a mild climate.  那个岛气候温和。

I have a good breakfast and good meal in the evening, and never trouble with lunch. 我有丰盛的早餐和丰盛的晚餐,从不为午饭操心。

He lives in a world of fantasy. 他生活在幻想的世界里。

  1. 不定冠词a (an) 与数词one 都可表示“一”,但是两者有差别:不定冠词 a (an) 表示“类别”概念,而数词 one 表示“数量”概念:

She has a new baby: it was born last week.  她有一个上周才出生的婴儿。

She has a woman who cleans for her twice a week.  她有一个女帮工,每星期帮她打扫两次。

  1. 两个单数可数名词连用表示一个整体时,只用一个冠词:

He is a teacher and poet. 他既是老师又是诗人。

There’s a horse and cart on the road. 路上有一辆马车。

  1. 与副词quite / rather 连用时,a (an) 一般要后置,但若其后的名词前有形容词修饰,则 a (an) 放在 quite / rather 之前或之后均可以:

正:He is rather a fool. 他是个大傻瓜。

正:It is quite a good book. 那是本很好的书。

正:It is a quite good book. 那是本很好的书。

误:He is a rather fool.(因为名词前无形容词,所以错误)

  1. 当too, so, as, how 等词之后接有“形容词+单数可数名词”时,不定冠词 a (an) 应放在形容词和单数可数名词之间:

It is too difficult a book for us beginners. 这本书对我们初学者来说太难了。

She is as good a cook as her mother. 她和她妈妈一样是一位好厨师。

No one realized how serious a mistake it was until much later. 直到后来好久,才有人意识到那是一个多么严重的错误。

  1. 不定冠词可用来表示“类属”,这是其基本用法,它表明的是某一类属中的每一个人和东西都能说明该类属的整体情况(有类似汉语的“举一反三”或“以此类推”的含义)。此时也可用定冠词或名词复数形式来表示:

马是有用的动物。

正:A horse is a useful animal.

正:The horse is a useful animal.

正:Horses are useful animals. (我爱语法网)

若不是说明每一个人和东西的情况,而是说整个类属,则不能用不定冠词,而要用定冠词(此时多与“发明”“绝种”这样的意义相联系):

Alexander Graham Bell invented the telephone in 1876. 亚历山大·格雷汉母·贝尔于1876年发明了电话。

The tiger is in danger of becoming extinct. 老虎有绝种的危险。

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