主动语态变被动语态常见错误9-13

英语语法:主动语态变被动语态常见错误9-13

前几期我们学习了英语语法:谓语动词的时态、语态的基本概念与被动语态、被动语态的使用场合、主动语态变被动语态常见错误1-4、主动语态变被动语态常见错误5-8。这一期,我们学习英语语法:主动语态变被动语态常见错误9-13。

语态

2.4 主动语态变被动语态常见错误

(9)误用被动语态的构成形式。比如:

He hasemptied the drawers.

他把抽屉腾空了。

错误:The drawers have emptied by him.

正确:The drawers have been emptied by him.

解析:被动语态的构成是be+p.p.。其中be的时态是可变的,各种时态的被动语态形式只需要把be变为与主动语态中相应的各种时态就行了。最容易出错的是现在进行时(莫忘be后加being)和现在完成时(莫忘have或has后加been)的被动语态形式。

(10)漏加不定式符号to。比如:

I heard her sing a song.

我听了她唱歌。

错误:She was heard sing a song.

正确:She was heard to sing a song.

 

解析:在主动句中,感官动词(比如see, watch, hear等)和使役动词(比如make, let, have等)后面跟不定式作宾语补足语时不带to,但变成被动句时,原来作宾语补足语的不定式就变成了主语补足语,必须在不定式前加上to。

(11)错省介词by。比如:

Who wrote this novel?

谁写了这本小说?

错误:Who was this novel written?

正确:Who was this novel written by?

解析:主动句是以who, what, which等作主语开头的特殊疑问句,变为被动句时,介词by不能省略。它可以放在被动结构后面,也可以和疑问代词who, what或者which一起放在句首,但who须用宾格形式。比如:What made you so troubled? =By what were you made to troubled? (你被什么搞得这么心烦意乱的?)

(12)错用被动式。比如:

Great changes have taken place in our country since 1980.

自从1980年以来,我们国家发生了巨大的变化。

错误:Great changes have been taken place in our country since 1980.

解析:不及物动词不能用被动形式,take place(发生)在此相当于happen,是不及物动词。

 

(13)错用固定结构。比如:

We are going to set up a new university here.

我们将在这里建一所新的大学。

错误:A new university is going to set up here.

正确:A new university is going to be set up here.

解析:含有固定结构be going to, have to, had better等的主动句变为被动句时,可以把这些固定结构视为情态动词,按照含情态动词的被动形式变化,即“情态动词+be+p.p.”。

一、单项选择。

……

二、分析句子的英语语法结构,并翻译成中文

Within 24 hours of Donald Trump’s announcement that the US was exiting the landmark 2015 Iran nuclear deal, both Damascus and Riyadh experienced missile attacks. Military analysts have warned that by leaving the agreement, the US move could serve to isolate Tehran at a time when it is engaged in multiple conflicts across the Middle East.【The Guardian】

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