定语从句和同位语从句的区别

7.1同位语

Mr. Smith,our new teacher,is very kind to us.

Yesterday I met Tom,a friend of my brother’s.

同位语就是解释前面的名词,等号成立!一定会告诉你前面名词的内容

7.2同位语从句

My grandfather told me a well-know saying that we learn for the rise of China.

saying=we learn for the rise of China

We all know the terrible news that the terrorists attacked France

news=the terrorists attacked France

同位语从句就是用一个叫句子补充说明与其同位的名词,如:conclusion/decision/idea/problem

7.3理解PK

The news that I heard yesterday is true.

A      B    C

The news that our team has won the match is true.

A       B       C

1.同位语:补充说明解释        ——       定语:修辞装饰修饰

修饰名词的成分:同位语(从句) >定语(限制性定语从句 ) >非限制性定语从句

  • 对人体起作用的程度: 大脑心脏>  眼睛耳朵  >   皮毛
  • 定语一定不会告诉你先行词是什么,同位语一定会告诉你名词是什么!

4.翻译:The rumor spread that a new school would be built here.                     

The village has developed a lot where we learned farming two years ago.                     

 

*特别注意

1.as用于限制性定语从句时,先行词前面必须被such/so/as/the same所修饰才行。

I bought the same car as you bought last week.

2.定从的世界里没有what和how!

 

  1. whose:“ta的”/“ta们的”

例:

【2013福建】 The book tells stories of the earthquake through the eyes of those ______ lives were affected.

  1. whose B. that C. who D. which

【2005天津】Last month, part of Southeast Asia was struck by floods, from ______ effects the people are still suffering.

  1. that B. whose C. those D. what

【2006福建】Look out! Don’t get too close to the house ______ roof is under repair.

  1. whose   B. which   C. of which   D. that

【2009天津】A person ______ e-mail account is full won’t be able to send or receive any e-mails.

  1. who B. whom
  2. whose D. whoever
  3. as:“正如”

【2004北京】______ is reported in the newspapers, talks between the two countries are making progress.

  1. It B. As C.That D. What

【2004江苏】______ is often the case, we have worked out the production plan.

  1. Which When C. What   D. As

 

  • As is known to all,…正如我们都知道的,…
  • As has been said before,…正如先前说过的,…
  • As is shown in the picture,…正如图画中展示的那样
  • As often happens,…正如经常发生的,…

注: as的“先行词”是整个主句

as从句中常用被动

     as引导的定从可置于主句之前

     

3.which:“这件事”

【2013天津】 We have launched another man-made satellite, ______is announced in today’s newspaper.

  1. that B. which C. who D. what

【2005浙江】Jim passed the driving test, ______ surprised everybody in the office.

  1. which B. that C. this D. it

注:which的“先行词”也可以是整个主句

【2007浙江】Chan’s restaurant on Baker Street, ______ used to be poorly run, is now a successful one.

  1. that B. which C. who D. where

【2011浙江】English is a language shared by several diverse cultures, each of ______ uses it differently.

  1. which B. what      C. them D. those

注:which的“先行词”也可以是某个名词

  1. that:“人物绝不避人物”

人:that可以指代人

物:that可以指代物

绝:当先行词表“绝对”意义时,用that

不:当先行词是“不定代词”时,用that

避:如果句子里已经用了who/which,为避免重复,可以用that

人物:当先行词“即有人又有物”时,用that

  1. 不能用that的情况
  • 逗号后
  • 介词后

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