直接引语变成间接引语,句子结构的变化

1)陈述句。用连词that引导,that在口语中常省略。主句的谓语动词可直用接引语中的said, 也可用told来代替,注意,可以说said that, said to sb. that, told sb. that,不可直接说told that, 如:

He said, “I have been to the Great Wall.” ——>He said to us that he had been to the Great Wall.

He said, “I’ll give you an examination next Monday.”——>

He told us that he would give us an examination the next Monday.(不可说told that)

此外主句中的谓语还常有:

repeat, whisper, answer, reply, explain, announce, declare, think等,又如:

He said,“I’m late because of the heavy traffic.”——> He explained to us that he was late because of the heavy traffic.

如果间接引语是由that引导的两个或两个以上的并列从句,第一个连词可以省略,以后的连词一般不省略,以免混乱。

The doctor said, “You are not seriously ill, You will be better soon.”——>

The doctor said(that)I was not seriously ill and that I would be better soon.

2)直接引语为一般疑问句,(也称是否疑问句,)间接引语用连词whether或if引导,原主句中谓语动词said要改为asked(me/him/us等),语序是陈述句的语序,这一点非常重要。

He said, “Do you have any difficulty with pronunciation?”——>

He asked(me)whether/if I had any difficulty with my pronunciation.

He said, “You are interested in English, aren’t you?”——>

He asked whether I was interested in English.

3) 直接引语为选择疑问句,间接引语用whether…or…表达,而不用if…or…,也不用either…or…. 如:

He asked, “Do you speak English or French?”——>

He asked me whether I spoke English or French..

I asked, “Will you take bus or take train?”——>

I asked him whether he would take bus or take train.

4)直接引语为特殊疑问句,改成间接引语时,原来的疑问词作为间接引语的连词,主句的谓语动词用ask(sb.)来表达,语序改为陈述句语序。如:

He asked,“What’s your name?”——> He asked(me)what my name was.

He asked us, “How many car factories have been built in your country?”——>

He asked us how many car factories had been built in our country.

5)直接引语为祈使句时,改为间接引语,用带to的不定式表达,谓语动词常是ask, advise, tell, warn, order, request等。如ask sb. to do,(由肯定祈使句变成)ask sb. not to do(由否定祈使句转变),并且在不定式短语中的时间状语、地点状语、人称及时态都作相应的变化。如:

He said,“Be seated, please.”——> He asked us to be seated.

“Do be careful with your handwriting.” He said. ——>

He told me to be careful with my handwriting.

“Never come here again!” said the officer nearby. ——>

The officer ordered the villagers never to go there again.

“Don’t touch anything in the lab without permission,” the teacher said. ——>

The teacher warned the students not to touch anything in the lab without permission.

6)有些含有“建议”——>、“劝告”——>的祈使句,可用suggest, insist, offer等动词转述,如:

He said, “Let’s have a rest.”——> He suggested our having a rest.

He said, “Let me help you.”——> He offered to help me.

7)当直接引语形式上是疑问句,有表示请求,建议意义时,可用ask sb. to do sth. /suggest doing/advise sb. to do sth. 等形式转述。如:

“Would you mind opening the door?” he asked. ——>He asked me to open the door.

“Why not going out for a walk?” he asked us. ——>

He advised us to go out for a walk. 或He suggested we go out for a walk.

8)直接引语是感叹句时,变间接引语可用what或how引导,也可用that引导,如:

She said, “What a lovely day it is!”——> She said what a lovely day it was. 或She said that it was a lovely day.

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