同源宾语你知多少?

英语中有些动词后面有一个与它意义相同的词作宾语,这种宾语叫同源宾语(the cognate object)。充当同源宾语的可以是与谓语动词同根的名词,也可以是与谓语动词意义相同或相近的名词。同源宾语前面一般都有定语加以修饰。下面,我把同源宾语的几种情形归纳一下,以供大家参考。

  • 一些同源宾语与动词同形:

The old lady slept a peaceful sleep last night. 那位老太太昨晚睡得很好。

The girl laughed a merry laugh. 这女孩儿愉快地笑了笑。

“Would you like me to pack it for you?” she asked, smiling her lovely smile again. “要我给你包一下吗?”她问,又露出了她可爱的笑容。

Last night I dreamed a wonderful dream. 昨晚我做了个好梦。

But next morning, when the King and Queen were having breakfast with her, the Princess said that she had dreamed such a strange dream in the night about a dog and a soldier. 可是,第二天早上与国王和王后共进早餐时,公主说她夜里做了个奇怪的梦,见到一只狗和一名士兵。

He sweated a cold sweat at the terrible noise. 听到那个可怕的声音,他吓出了一身冷汗。

The old man sighed a deep sigh. 老人深深地叹了口气。

He had said his say. 他要说的都说了。

His mother kissed him a long, fervent kiss. 母亲给了他一个长时间的、热烈的吻。

I smelled a smell of cooking. 我闻到了烧菜做饭的味道。

They had to fight a hard fight. 他们不得不进行一场苦战。

Thinking herself alone, she sighed a deep sigh. 她独自一人在那儿深深地叹息。

You drink your drink, and then you can eat the chocolate cup. 你把饮料喝掉,然后,你可以吃巧克力杯子。

  • 一些同源宾语与动词的形式稍有变化:

The Chinese people are living a happy life today. 现在中国人正过着幸福的生活。

In the old days they led a dog’s life. 旧社会他们过着受折磨的日子。

They ran an 800-metre race that day. 那天他们进行了八百米赛跑。

He breathed his last breath. 他咽了最后一口气。

Charlie breathed a deep breath. 查理深深地吸了一口气。

What are you waiting for? Live life to the fullest. 你还等什么?活着,要活得尽可能充实。

They looked at each other, thinking the same thought. 他俩怀着相同的心思相互看着对方。

Her children, however, were what prevented her from being able to live the life she wanted to live. 然而,她的孩子们成了阻止她过自己想要过的生活的因素。

  • 一些同源宾语在词形上与动词完全不同:

He hoped that his wife would die an early death. 他希望妻子早点儿死。

She died a dog’s death.她悲惨地死去。

In the past, dogs often went “mad” and bit people, and the people died a painful death from the bite.过去,狗经常“发疯”去咬人,被咬的人就会因为咬伤而痛苦地死去。

Our Red Army men fought a good battle. 红军战士打了一场漂亮仗。

After years of non-stop hard work, he might wear himself out and die an early death. 经过这些年无休无止的艰苦工作,他可能会跨下来,早早死去。

  • 一些同源宾语前如有形容词最高级修饰时,该宾语可以省去:

The birds are singing their loudest (song). 小鸟在高声歌唱。

He shouted his loudest (shout). 他用尽全力大叫。

The old man breathed his last (breath). 那老人咽气了。

He was trying his hardest (trying). 他正在尽最大的努力。

The thief ran his fastest (run) at the sight of a policeman. 小偷一看见警察就飞速跑去。

  • 一些同源宾语有其复数形式:

Many people live long healthy lives in modern times.很多现代人都长寿。

  • 一些同源宾语可以是个从句:

I did not wish to live what was not life. 我不愿意过非人的生活。

  • 一些同源宾语前面有标点符号与其它句子成分隔开,其形式与同位语非常近似:

The girl smiled at me, a friendly smile. 那个女孩儿朝我友好地笑了笑。

They had glanced at each other—quick, searching glances.

他们都朝对方扫了一眼——快速的、试探性的扫视。

  • 一些同源宾语也可用于被动形式:

They thought Hitler’s race was nearly run. 他们觉得希特勒的日子不会长了。

What is life worth if it is only to be lived at somebody else’s dictation?

如果按照别人的意思去活,日子还有什么过头儿?

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