英语中句首动词用什么形式?(真题精讲)

在英语高考试题的选择题中,经常让考生对英语句子的句首动词形式判断。本文将从以下几个方面谈谈自己在平时教学中发现的规律归纳如下。

1、句首的原形动词。此类题目设置的是祈使句。其基本句型为:祈使句 + and/or/— +简单句。该句型中,祈使句表示条件,简单句表示结果。请看下面两个例子。

________ down the radio—the baby’s asleep in the next room.(93年高考题)

A. Turning    B. Turn     C. Turned    D. To turn

–English has a large vocabulary, hasn’t it?

–Yes. _________ more words and expressions and you will find it easier to read and communicate.(04年上海高考题)

  1. Know     B. Knowing    C. To know     D. Known

根据基本句型要求,以上两题的答案分别是B、A。

2、不定式。不定式结构出现在句首是不定式短语作目的状语。其意是“为了” 。例如:

__________ late in the morning, Bob turned off the alarm.(01年北京、内蒙古、安徽春季高考题)

  1. To sleep    B. Sleeping    C. Sleep    D. Having Slept

根据句意“为了早上多睡一会儿,Bob关掉了闹钟”,故A为正确答案。

3、过去分词。过去分词在句首通常用作状语,表示时间、方式或伴随、原因、条件、让步等。它们与句子主语的关系是被动关系。例如

_______ time, he’ll make a first-class tennis player.(03年北京高考题)

  1. Having given    B. To give    C. Giving    D. Given

在此试题中,句意为“给他时间”,表示条件,且相对主语而言,含有被动之意,D项为正确选项。

______ with a difficult situation, Arnold decided to ask his boss for advice.(05年北京春季高考题)

  1. To face    B. Having faced    C. Faced   D. Facing

此试题中,从汉语意义上讲,它表示了主动的意义,而从英语结构来说,要用be + 过去分词。与空格后的with组成的短语是be faced with。故该题正确答案是C。由此而推出很多这样的短语:be dressed in, be covered with, be tired of, be filled with,be separated from, be lost in, be marked with,be addicted to等,这样的短语用作了系表结构,表示状态。

4、现在分词。现在分词在句首所作成分与过去分词相同。例如:

_____ from heart trouble for years, Professor White has to take some medicine with him wherever he goes.(01年上海高考题)

  1. Suffered   B. Suffering   C. Having suffered    D. Being suffered

_____ from other continents for millions of years, Australia has many plants and animals not found in any other country in the world.(05年湖北高考题)

  1. Being separated          B. Having separated
  2. Having been separated    D. To be separated

以上两题现在分词所表示的动作在主语之前发生,应该用完成式。两题的不同点是主动与被动。上海题的现在分词与句子主语的关系是主动关系,根据four years时间状语,正确答案是C。湖北题则表示被动关系,也有时间状语,故C是正确答案。

5、垂悬分词

_____ such heavy pollution already, it may now be too late to clean up the river.(01年全国高考题)

  1. Having suffered    B. Suffering    C. To suffer    D. Suffered

此题设置的非谓语动词的逻辑主语不是it,而且it也不是非谓语动词的逻辑宾语。因此此题属于垂悬分词。因为这个动作发生在谓语动词之前。正确答案是A。

6、动名词。动名词在句首考查的是句子的主语。

________ to sunlight for too much time will do harm to one’s skin.(02年上海高考题)

  1. Exposed            B. Having exposed
  2. Being exposed      D. After being exposed

It’s necessary to be prepared for a job interview. _______ the answers ready will be of great help.(05年北京高考题)

  1. To have had   B. Having had   C. Have    D. Having

上海题测试的是动名词短语作主语,expose与one’s skin是动宾关系,因此,选项C为(动名词的被动式)正确答案。北京题,第二句的will be of great help缺主语,根据上下文的意思,“准备”是指一般性的行为,因此正确选项是D。

7、句首动词的其他特殊结构:例如:

⑴ 动词原形开头的句子结构,是由as引起的倒装句中。例如:

Try as she might, Carolina couldn’t get the door open.(05年广东)

根据as引起的倒装句的要求,其句子结构为:原形动词 + as + 主语 + would/might。

⑵ 插入语结构。常用不定式作插入语的结构有:to begin with(首先)、to tell the truth(说老实话)、to sum up(总之)、to make things/matters worse(情况更糟的是)、to be frank/honest/…等形式。例如:

To make matters worse, he also had a son in college who had taken a bank loan for his students.

⑶倒装结构中的现在分词和过去分词在句首。此结构中的现在分词实际上是动词的进行时态变化而来,过去分词是由被动语态变化得来的。例如:

Hanging on the wall is a photo of Mary’s family.

Tied to the small tree is a boat.

⑷不定式作主语。例如:

To see is to believe。

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