“For sb.+to do 与“of sb.+to do”在用法上的区别

1 两个句型的不同用法

英语中多次出现 It is+adj.+for sb.+to do 与 It+is adj.+of sb.+to do 这两种很相似的句型 ,到底是 for sb.+to do 还是 of sb.+to do? 大家会对此句型的掌握有些模糊,可以从几点来区别使用它们。 以下谈谈我的理解与看法。这两个句型中何时用“for”,何时用“of”;如果既描述行为,又描述作出这种行为的人,就用“of”。 如:It was nice of you to see me off at this time of night. 在这一句里 ,“nice”既描述行为to see me off at this time of night, 又 描 述 了 做 出 此 行 为 的 人“you”, 因为我们可以说 “For you to see me off at this time of

night is nice” 也可以说 :You are nice to see me off at this time of night.

若形容词仅仅是描述事物, 不是对不定式行为者的品格进行评价,用 for sb. It is important for us to study hard.。 这一句话里,“important”只描述行为 to study hard,不描述做出此行为的人“us”,因为我们可说“For us to study hard is important。 ”却不可以说 We are important to study hard.

2 上述两种形容词的归类及两种句型的转换形式

1) nice 类型的形容词

属于 nice 类型的形容词,常用的还有 clever,cruel,foolish,stupid,good,greedy,generous,honest,modest,kind,polite,impolite,rude,selfish,wise,right,wrong,wonderful,careful careless,absurd,brave,silly,lazy 等。

例如:

It’s clever of you to solve the problem

It was careless of you to break the glass.

It was stupid of you to make such a mistake.

上述句子可以转换为:

You are clever to solve the problem

You are careless to break the glass.

You are stupid to make such a mistake.

这些句子还可以转换为由 how 引导的感叹句。例如:

How careless of you to break the glass!

How stupid of you to make such a mistake!

2) important 类型的形容词

属于 important 类型的形容词,常用的有 easy,hard,necessary,difficult,possible,impossible,useful,useless,strange,pleasant,convenient, dangerous,等。例如:

It’s very dangerous for children to cross the busy street. It is

hardly possible for us to fulfill the task without your help.

It is not easy for me to learn another foreign language.

It is completely useful for him to read such books.

以上句子还可转换为:

It is hardly possible for us to fulfill this task without your help.

Another foreign language is not easy for me to learn.

Such books are completely useful for him to read.

又可以转换为:

For us to fulfill the task without your help was hardly possible.

For me to learn another language is not easy.

For him to read such books IS completely useful.

(以上这些形式多用于书面语)

但这种句型不能转换成:

We were hardly possible to fulfill the task without your help.

I am not easy to learn another foreign language.

He is completely useful to read such books.

因为这些形容词只描述“行为”,不能描述做出这种行为的人。

我们再进一步研究一下以 Another foreign language is not so easy for me to master. 为例的句型中词与词之间的逻辑关系。

①在形式上 easy 是所以是表语,说明主语 another foreign language,但实际上却是说明跟在后面的不定式 to master 的。

②这个不定式 to master 必须是个及物动词, 以语法上的主语 another foreign language 为其意义上的宾语。上述这两个特点又进一步说明在“it is+adj.+for sb.+to do”句型里。 表语必须是一个从意义上看能修饰动词的性质形容词,与能否说明主语则无关系。

3 两个句型中的“it”的作用不相同

“It is+adj+for sb.+to do… ”的 “代替的是不定式复合结构“for sb,to do… ”而 “It is+adj+of sb.+to do… ”中的”it”只能代替“to do…”。

例如在下而的两句对话中:

A:I’ve lost my mobile phone.

B:That was very careless of you.

但在“It is+adj.+for sb.+to do…”中“it”却不是能用 that 代替,如不能说:

That is necessary for you to do so.

“It is+adj.+for sb.to do…句型中”“for sb.to do…”为不定式复合结构。 因此,完全具备动词不定式的语法功能。 除了作主语外, 还可以做其它成份。 如:We think it advisable for him to go there at once(宾语) for… to do sth 在句中作主语时 ,其表语

可以是形容词也可以是名词;

I am anxious for him to have a good rest.(状语)

It is impossible for you to get there in such a short time.

而在“It is+adj“+of sb.to do”句型中,不定式 to do 是用来和形容词一起构成“形容词+不定式”结构的,因此,我们可以说:I think it wise for him to make the decision.而不能说 I think it wise of him to make the decision. of… to do sth 作主语时 ,只能接形容词做表语。

It was too foolish of you to do so. 你那么做真是太愚蠢了

4 结束语

综上所述,要用 For sb.+to do 还是 of sb.+to do? 这取决具体的句型,我们应该在学习中不断积累。

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