BS 2000-34:1983 pdf free download

06-19-2021 comment

BS 2000-34:1983 pdf free download.Petroleum and its products Part 34 . Flash point by Pensky-Martens closed tester.
1.1. This method covers the determination of the flash point by Pensky— Martens closed tester of fuel oils, lubricating oils, suspensions of solids, liquids that tend to form a surface film under test conditions, and other liquids. For the determination of the flash point of drying oils and solvent-type liquid waxes refer to Note 1.
NOTE 1: The flash porni of drying oils may be determined using AST%1 %let hod Dl393. Test for Flash Point of Drying Oils.: and the flash point of solvent-type liquid waxes may be determined using Method D1437. Test for Rash Point of Solvent.Type L.iquid Waxes.’ The flash point ot cutbacks. asphalts or bitumens may be determined using ASTM Dl3l0. Test for Flash Point of Liquids by Tag-Open Cup Apparatus, or by IP 113, Flash Point (Cosed) of Cutback Bitumen.
NOTE 2: This method may be employed for the detection of contamination of tubricatin oils b minor amounts of volatile material.
NOTE 3: The US Department of Traimportation (OHMO) and US Department of Labor (OSHA) have established that liquids with a flash point under 37.8’C (l00’Fl are flammable as determined by this method for those liquids which hase a viscosity of 5.8 cSi or more at 37.8°C (100°F) or 9.5 cSt or more at 25°C (77°f), or that coniain suspended colids. or base a tendency to form a surface film while under test. Other classification flash points have been established by these departments for liquids using this test.
1.2. Liquids which have viscosities less than 5.5 cSt at 40°C (104°F), do not contain suspended solids or do not have a tendency to form a surface film while under test may be tested in accordance with Method D56.
1.3. This standard should be used to measure and describe the properties of materials, products, or assemblies in response to beat and flame under controlled laboratory conditions and should not be used w describe or appraise the fire hazard or fire risk of materials, products, or assemblies under actual fire conditions. However, results of this test may be used as elements of a fire risk assessment which takes into account all of the factors which are pertinent to an assessment of the fire hazard of a particular end use.
1.4. The values stated in inch-pound units shall be regarded as the standard.
2.1. ASTM Standards:
D56 Test for Flash Point by Tag Closed Testers
El Specification for ASTM Thermometers’
E134 Specification for Pensky-Martens Closed Flash Tester
2.2. IP Standards:
Specifications for IP Standard Thermometers.
3.1. The sample is heated at a slow, constant rate with continual stirring. A small flame is directed Into he cup at regular intervals with simultaneous interruption of stirring. The flash point is the lowest temperature at which application of the test flame causes the vapour above the sample to ignite.
4.1. FLash point measures the response of the sample to heat and flame under controlled laboratory conditions. It is only one of a number of properties which must be considered in assessing the overall flammability hazard of a material.
4.2. Flash point is used in shipping and safety regulations to define ‘flammable’ and ‘combustible’ materials. One should consult the particular regulation involved for precise definitions of these classes.
4.3. Flash point can indicate the possible presence of highly volatile and flammable materials in a relatively non-volatile or non-flammable material. For example, an abnormally low flash point on a sample of kerosine may indicate gasoline contamination.
9.2. If the sample is known to have a flash point of 230°F (110°C) or below, apply the test flame when the temperature of the sample is 30°F (17°C) to 50°F (28°C) below the expected flash point and thereafter at a temperature reading that is a multiple of 2°F (1°C). Apply the test flame by operating the mechanism on the cover which controls the shutter and test flame burner so that the flame is lowered into the vapour space of the cup in 0.5 s, left in its lowered position for I s, and quickly raised to its high position. Do not stir the sample while applying the test flame.
9.3. If the sample is known to have a flash point above 230° F (110°C) apply the test flame in the manner just described at each temperature that is a multiple of 5°F (2°C) beginning at a temperature of 30°F (18°C) to 50°F (28°C) below the expected flash point.
NOTE 6: When testing materials to determine ii volatile contaminarns are prcsen: it is not necessary to adhere to the temperature limits for initial flame application as stated in Sections 9.2 and 9.3.
9.4. Record as the flash point the temperature read on the thermometer at the time the test flame application causes a distinct flash in the interior of the cup. Do not confuse the true flash point with the bluish halo that sometimes surrounds the test flame at applications preceding the one that causes the actual flash.
10.1. Bring the material to be tested and the tester to a temperature of
60±10°F (15 ± 5°C) or 20°F (11°C) lower than the estimated flash point, whichever is lower. Completely fill the air space between the cup and the interior of the air bath with water at the temperature of the tester and sample. Turn the stirrer 250± 10 rev/mm, stirring in a downward direction. Raise the temperature throughout the duration of the test at a rate of not less than 2° nor more than 3°F (10 to 1.5°C)/min. With the exception of these requirements for rates of stirring and heating, proceed as prescribed in Section 9.
NOTE 7: Solid carbon dioxide (COt) (dry ice) shall in no case be used to obtain the proper rate of temperature rise, since CO: has a blanketing effect which leads to a false flash point.
11.1 Observe and record the barometric pressure (Note 8) at the Lime of test. When the pressure differs from 760mm Hg or 1013 mbar, correct the observed flash point by means of one of the following expressions:
corrected flash point (°F) = F + 0.06 (760— p)
or corrected flash point (°C)C+0.033 (760—p)
or corrected flash point (°C)=C+0.025(l013—P)
where F is the observed flash point, °F
C is the observed flash point, °C
p is the barometric pressure, mm Hg.
P is the barometric pressure, mbar.
NOTE 8: The barometric pressure used in this calculation must be the ambient pressure of the laboratory at the time of test. Many aneroid barometers, such as those used at weather stations and airports, are precorrected to give sea level readings. These must not be used.
11.2. Record the corrected flash point to the nearest 1°F or 0.5°C.
11.3. Report the recorded flash point as the Pensky-Martens Closed Cup Flash Point ASTM D 93-IP 34, of the sample tested.
12.1. Method A — The following criteria should be used for judging the acceptability of results (95% confidence).

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