ACI 350:2006 download

05-27-2021 comment

The code portion of ACI 350 covers the structural design, materials selection, and construction of environmental engineering concrete structures. Such structures are used for conveying, storing, or treating liquid or other materials such as solid waste. They include ancillary structures for dams, spill-ways, and channels.
They are subject to uniquely different loadings, more severe exposure conditions, and more restrictive serviceability requirements than non-environmental building structures.
Loadings include normal dead and live loads and vibrating equipment or hydrodynamic forces. Exposures include concentrated chemicals, alternate wetting and drying, and freezing and thawing of saturated concrete. Serviceability requirements include liquid-tightness or gas-tightness.
Typical structures include conveyance, storage, and treatment structures.
Proper design, materials, and construction of environmental engineering concrete structures are required to produce serviceable concrete that is dense, durable, nearly impermeable, and resistant to chemicals, with limited deflections and cracking. Leakage must be controlled to minimize contamination of ground water or the environment, to minimize loss of product or infiltration, and to promote durability.
This code presents new material as well as modified portions of the ACI 318-02 Building Code that are applicable to environmental engineering concrete structures.
The commentary discusses some of the considerations of the committee in developing the ACI 350 Code, and its relationship with ACI 318. Emphasis is given to the explanation of provisions that may be unfamiliar to some users of the code. References to much of the research data referred to in preparing the code are given for those who wish to study certain requirements in greater detail.
The chapter and section numbering of the code are followed throughout the commentary. Among the subjects covered are: permits, drawings and specifications, Inspections, materials, concrete quality, mixing and placing, forming, embedded pipes, construction joints, reinforcement details, analysis and design, strength and serviceability, flexural and axial loads, shear and torsion, development of reinforcement, slab systems, walls, footings, precast concrete, prestressed concrete, shell structures, folded plate members, provisions for seismic design, and an alternate design method in Appendix I.
The quality and testing of materials used in the construction are covered by reference to the appropriate standard specifications. Welding of reinforcement is covered by reference to the appropriate AWS standard. Criteria for liquid-tightness testing may be found in 350.1.
The American Concrete Institute “Code Requirements for Environmental Engineering Concrete Structures (ACI 350-06),” hereinafter referred to as the code, provide minimum requirements for environmental engineering concrete structural design and construction practices.
The 2006 edition of the code revised the previous code. “Code Requirements of Environmental Engineering Concrete Structures (ACt 350-01).” This code includes in one document the rules for all reinforced concrete used for environmental engineering structural purposes. This covers the spectrum of structural applications of concrete containing nonprestressed reinforcement. prestressing steel. or composite steel shapes. pipe. or tubing.
Prestressed concrete is included under the definition of reinforced concrete. Provisions of ACI 350-06 apply to prestressed concrete except in cases in which the provisions of the code are stated to apply specifically to nonprestressed concrete.
Chapter 21 of the code contains special provisions for design and detailing of eanhquake-resistant structures. See 1.1.8.
Appendix I of the 2006 code, formerly Appendix A of the 2001 code, contains provisions for an alternate method of design for nonpresiressed reinforced concrete members using service loads (without load factors) and permissible service load stresses. The strength design method of this code is intended to give design results similar to the Alternate Design Method.
Appendix A of the ACI 318-02 code has not yet been adopted for environmental engineering concrete structures. Applicability of strut-and-tie models to environmental structures may be addressed in future revisions to AC! 350.
Appendix B of the 20()6 code contains provisions for reinforcement limits based on °•75Pb determination of the strength reduction factorØ. and moment redistribution that have been in the 318 codes for many years. including the 1999 318 code. The provisions are applicable to reinforced and prestressed concrete members. Designs made using the provisions of Appendix B are used in their entirety.
Appendix C of the 2006 code allows the use of load, environmental durability, strength reduction factors, and flexural reinforcement distribution provisions similar to those In Chapters 9 and 10 of ACI 350-01. Designs made using the provisions of Appendix C are equally acceptable as (hose
material, construction, and design requirements for circular cast-in-place reinforced chimneys. It sets forth minimum loadings for the design of reinforced concrete chimneys and contains methods ftr determining the stresses in the concrete and reinforcement required as a result of these loadings.)
bStandard Practice for Design and Construction of Concrete Silos and Stacking Tubes for Storing (;ranular Materials” reported by ACT Committee 313).2 (Gives material. design. and construction requirements for reinforced concrete bins, silos, and bunkers and stave silos for storing granular materials, It includes recommended design and construction criteria based on experimental and analytical studies plus worldwide experience in silo design and construction.)
(Bins, silos, and bunkers are special structures, posing special problems not encountered in normal building design. While this standard practice refers to bBuilding Code Requirements for Structural Concrete” (ACI 318) for many applicable requirements, it provides supplemental detail requirements and ways of considering the unique problems of static and dynamic loading of silo structures. Much of the method is empirical, but this standard practice does not preclude the use of more sophisticated methods that give equivalent or better safety and reliability.)
(This standard practice sets forth recommended loadings and methods for determining the stresses in the concrete and reinforcement resulting from these loadings. Methods are recommended for determining the thermal effects resulting from stored material and for determining crack width in concrete walls due to pressure exerted by the stored material. Appendices provide recommended minimum values of overpressure and impact factors.)
‘Code Requirements for Nuclear Safety Related Concrete Structures” reported by AC! Committee 349•L3 (Provides minimum requirements for design and construction of concrete structures that form part of a nuclear power plant and which have nuclear safety related functions. The code does not cover concrete reactor vessels and concrete containment structures that are covered by AC! 359.)
‘Code for Concrete Reactor Vessels and Containments” reported by Joint ACI-ASME Committee 359,1.4 (Provides requirements for the design. construction, and use of concrete reactor vessels and concrete containment structures for nuclear power plants.)
R1.l.5 — The design and installation of piling fully embedded in the ground is regulated by the general building code. For portions of piling in air or water, or in soil not capable of providing adequate lateral restraint throughout the piling length to prevent buckling, the design provisions of this code govern where applicable.
Admixture — Material other than water, aggregate, or hydraulic cement, used as an ingredient of concrete and added to concrete before or during its mixing to modify its properties.
Aggregate — Granular material, such as sand, gravel, crushed stone, and iron blast-furnace slag, used with a cementing medium to form a hydraulic cement concrete or mortar.
Aggregate, lightweight — Aggregate with a dry, loose weight of 70 lb/ft3 or less.
Anchorage device — In post-tensioning, the hardware used for transferring a post-tensioning force from the prestressing steel to the concrete.
Anchorage zone — In post-tensioned members, the portion of the member through which the concentrated prestressing force is transferred to the concrete and distributed more uniformly across the section. Its extent is equal to the largest dimension of the cross section. For anchorage devices located away from the end of a member, the anchorage zone includes the disturbed regions ahead of and behind the anchorage devices.
Basic monostrand anchorage device — Anchorage device used with any single strand or a single 5/8 in. or smaller diameter bar that satisfies 18.21.1 and the anchorage device requirements of ACI 423.6, Specif ication for Unbonded Single-Strand Tendons.”
Basic multistrand anchorage device — Anchorage device used with multiple strands, bars, or wires, or with single bars larger than 5/8 in. diameter, that satisfies 18.21.1 and the bearing stress and minimum plate stiffness requirements of AASHTO Bridge Specifications, Division I, Articles through
Bonded tendon — Tendon in which prestressing steel is bonded to concrete either directly or through grouting.
Building official — See 1.2.3.
Cementitious materials — Materials as specified in Chapter 3, which have cementing value when used in concrete either by themselves, such as portland cement, blended hydraulic cements, and expansive cement, or such materials in combination with fly ash, other raw or calcined natural pozzolans, silica fume, and/or ground granulated blast-furnace slag.

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