BS 11:1985 download free

06-17-2021 comment

BS 11:1985 download free.Specification for Railway rails.
1 Scope
BS 11 specifies the requirements for the quality of steel, dimensions, tolerances and other technical conditions of delivery for railway rails of 24.8 kg/rn (50 Ib/yd) and greater linear mass.
NOTE The titles of the publications referred to in BS 11 are listed on the inside back cover.
2 Information to be supplied by the purchaser
2.1 The purchaser shall state in his enquiry and order:
a)the number of BS 11, i.e. BS 11; b) the grade of steel (see Table 1);
c) details of the rail section required (see clause 4);
d) rail length required (see clause 19):
e) use of rail to determine the tolerance on length (see Table 4).
2.2 Additionally certain alternatives or options shall be permitted by this standard as specified below:
a) request details of the steelmaking and casting processes (see clause 5);
b) optional branding requirements (see 8.1.2); c) cold stamping of one end of a finished rail (see 8.2.7);
d) application of delegated inspection or quality assurance (see clause 10);
e) request details of hydrogen flake avoidance procedure (see clause 12):
f) application of the rail end straightness tolerance applied to drilled rails (see 13.5);
g) application of a continuous non-destructive testing (see 14.2);
h) supply of a restricted percentage of short rail (see clause 19).
Any of the required alternatives specified in the clause referred to above shall be stated by the purchaser at the time of the enquiry and order, and, shall be implemented by the manufacturer.
c) the manufacturer’s name, initials or other recognized mark, sufficient to identify the rolling mill;
d) the last two figures of the year of manufacture.
8.1.2 Additionally the purchaser has the option of requesting further brand marks including any of the following [see 2.2 b)]:
a) the number of the month of manufacture (in roman numerals);
b) the steelmaking process:
1) 0 : Oxygen
2) OB: Open hearth, basic
3) E : Electric;
c) letters identifying the purchasing administration:
BS 113-A-B-X & Co-85-V-O-ZR
(i.e. wear-resisting grade B)
BS 90R- .X & Co-85-V-O-ZR (i.e. normal grade)
NOTE It is important to maintain a clear demarcation between the components of the brand marks. This is achieved by the use of hyphens.
8.2 Rail identification
8.2.1 General. In addition to the branding requirements of 8.1, each rail shall be identified by a numerical and/or alphabetical code system, hot stamped, on the non-branded side of the rail web, either manually (see 8.2.2) or by machine (see 8.2.3).
The figures and letters used shall be at least 15 mm high.
The identification system employed shall be such as to enable the hot stamped marking to be collated with:
a) the number of the cast from which the rail has been rolled;
b) the number of the ingot or the continuously cast strand and bloom;
c) the position of the rail relative to the top of the ingot or bloom.
NOTE 1 As an alternative to manual hot stamping, repetitive application by a machine on the side of the rail web can be used for all or part of the identification system, e.g. the cast number. NOTE 2 The hot stamping procedure for lighter section rails, e.g. 24.8 kg/rn (50 Ib/yd) and 29.9 kg/rn (60 ib/yd) or for rails ordered in short prime lengths should be based on an agreement between the manufacturer and purchaser.
NOTE 3 For the purpose of identification, a rail may be considered to be that which exists as a single length after hot sawing. Where such rails are subsequently cold sawn or machined to produce two or more shorter lengths. these may each bear the identification of the original hot sawn rail.
15 Test sample selection
For rails produced from ingots. the accepted inherent characteristics of the product influence the test sample positions and these shall be as specified in clauses 16. 17 and 18.
In the production of rails from continuously cast blooms, the position of the rail in the bloom or strand in main cast material is of no significance, and test samples shall be selected by the manufacturer on a random basis, subject to all other provisions in this standard.
In the case of sequential continuously cast material, the initial test samples shall be selected only from known main cast blooms or rails. The changeover material, intermediate between two main casts and forming the last (or uppermost) blooms in each cast, shall only be sampled:
a) as part of the retest procedure in the event of rejection of a cast, or casts, from within a succession of sequentially poured casts; or
b) if a rolling batch terminates within intermediate material containing steel from a main cast which has not been sampled and tested. In this case the sampling and testing procedure shall commence with the last (or uppermost) rails, and retesting shall move progressively lower down the blooms and strand.
NOTE Predefined test sample positions for rails made from continuously cast steel may be agreed between the purchaser and the manufacturer at the time of enquiry and order.
16 Chemical analysis
16.1 Initial tests
NOTE The chemical composition of the steel shall be determined by ladle analysis and shall comply with the appropriate requirements of clause 6. Determinations may be made chemically. spectrographically or by other modern instrumental methods.
After rolling the rails, the manufacturer shall supply the purchaser with the chemical composition of a product sample of each cast or part cast being supplied against the contract.
If the rails do not comply with the requirements of clause 6 all rails from that cast or part cast shall be deemed not to comply with this standard, subject to the provisions of 16.2.
16.2 Retests
Should the chemical composition fail to comply with the requirements of clause 6. the manufacturer shall make two further tests on samples cut from the rolled rail.
For casts of less than 100 t, retests shall be carried out from each cast represented by the original test. Each cast shall then be judged separately and, where satisfactory results from a retest are obtained, the casts concerned shall be deemed to comply with this standard. In the event of failure of a sample in a retest, two further retests shall be made on rails from the same cast. Satisfactory performance shall result in the cast being deemed to comply with BS 11. Failure of one or both samples in second retests shall result in the cast being deemed not to comply with this standard.
In the event of failure of original tensile tests with casts of over 100 t, where more than one original tensile test per cast is made, two retests per original test failure shall be made from rails represented by the original tests which have failed. One of these retests shall be carried out on rails from the same ingot or continuously cast strand as the original test, and one retest from rails from another ingot or another continuously cast strand of the same cast, which have not previously been subjected to tensile testing. If the cast size is such that a continuously cast strand within a cast amounts to 100 t or more, retests shall be carried out on rails from markedly different positions within the strand.
In the event of failure in any retests, two further retests shall be carried out on other rails represented by the original tests. Failure of one or more test pieces in these second retests shall result in all rails represented by the original test being deemed not to comply with the standard. For sequence continuously cast material, in the event of rejection or withdrawal of rails from one or more strands of a cast, the rails rolled from the changeover blooms at the end of these strands of the previous cast in the sequence shall either be deemed not to comply with this standard or they shall be subjected to progressive retesting to establish demarcation between compliance and non-compliance.
19 Rail lengths and supply of short lengths
The purchaser shall specify the normal or prime rail length to be supplied.
The purchaser shall accept lengths shorter than the specified normal or prime rail length to the maximum percentages by mass as given in Table 8.
Alternatively the purchaser can request the manufacturer to restrict the supply of short lengths [see 2.2 h)].

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