BS 7359:1991 download free

06-11-2021 comment

BS 7359:1991 download free.Nomenclature of Commercial timbers including sources of supply.
1 Scope
BS 7359 tabulates hardwoods and softwoods of economic interest in the United Kingdom and includes botanical species, standard names, alternative commercial names. sources of supply and average densities in kg/rn3.
NOTE 1 The standard retains the timbers listed in the 1974 edition of BS 881 & BS 589. though some are no longer available commercially but remain in use in wooden items.
NOTE 2 The titles of the publications referred to in this standard are listed on the inside back cover.
2 Definitions
For the purpose of this standard, the definitions in
BS 6100-4.1 apply, and in particular the following.
timber, whether hard or not, of broad-leaved trees belonging to the botanical group Angiospernis
timber of trees belonging to the botanical group Gym nosperms
NOTE Commercial timber of this group is practically confined to the class con iferac (conifers).
3 Terminology
In the nomenclature the following terminology is used.
3.1 Botanical species
The botanical name of the species, group of species or genera producing the timber listed is given.
NOTE I A botanical name normally comprises two words, a generic or group name followed by a species or specific name; these are followed by the name or names, usually in abbreviated form, of the person or persons contributing to the naming of the plant. There are strict rules, accepted world-wide, governing the naming of plants and there is only one correct botanical name. However, new knowledge, for example, on the classification of plants or on the name first used for a plant. can sometimes require changes to a name. The former name is then a synonym of the new name and where a familiar name is now a synonym this is given in the standard with the new name.
NOTE 2 Though botanical names are not for everyday use, they are the only standard names in international use. Their use in a specification is recommended where doubt as to identity might otherwise arise.
3.2 Sources of supply
The source of supply indicates where a timber is normally available.
NOTE Timber is not necessarily exported from the sources listed: nor do these sources always indicate the full geographical range of a timber.
3.3 Standard names
Except as indicated below, a single standard name is given for a timber and applies only to that timber.
For a few timbers, it is not possible to choose between two well established names and alternative standard names are given. Thus, both afara and limba are recognized as standard names for Terniinalia superba and obeche and wawa for Triplochiton scieroxylon. A similar departure in principle has been made with European spruce or white-wood and Scots pine or redwood, where the established custom of using one name for the British-grown timber and another for the imported is adopted.
Because the character of many commercial timbers varies with locality of growth, the name of the port of shipment or the locality of origin is often associated with timber of a particular type, as for example with pine (redwood) and oak from different parts of Europe, and mahogany from different parts of Africa. Such names may be used as alternatives to a standard name when it is desired to specify the geographical origin more precisely.
NOTE 1 In selecting standard names, the following principles have been adopted.
a) It is essential any name selected as standard should have a reasonable chance of being adopted in practice.
b) It is inexpedient to reject names firmly established by trade custom in this country.
c) Where it is necessary to choose between several well established names, the most widely used name is selected as the standard.
d) Wherever possible, names standardized in the country of origin are used as standard names.
In certain cases, it is impossible to reconcile established use in this country with standard practice in the country of origin, and some names adopted as standard in Australia, the United States of America and elsewhere are unacceptable as standard names in the United Kingdom. As a rule, such names are included as Trade and local names.
NOTE 2 A measure of standardization has been sought by adopting, in appropriate cases, a generic trade name, for example the name oak for all species of the botanical genus Quercus. with the various commercial varieties of oak distinguished by appropriate qualifying names. Other examples are birch (&tula). beech (Fagus), ash (Fraxinus), walnut (Juglans), mahogany (Swietenia and Khaya). Where there is no equivalent, the generic name is sometimes suitable as a standard name, for example, Afzeiia. Antiaris, Canarium, Guarea. This is essentially the same principle as the use of English generic names.
NOTE 3 In some instances, the names of well known timbers such as “oak”, “walnut”, “mahogany” or “teak” with a geographical or other qualification, are used for timbers that have no botanical relationship with those properly so named. Names of this kind are distinguished by quotation marks to indicate that they are not true oaks, walnuts, mahoganies. etc. Many of these names have become firmly established by long use (e.g. “Queensland walnut”, “Rhodesian teak”, “Tasmanian oak”) and where there is no suitable alternative the established name is adopted as standard although it is botanically inappropriate. Standard names in this category are marked with a distinctive sign ( ). It should not be inferred that timbers so marked arc necessarily inferior to timbers that are true to name. Furthermore, although inappropriate trade names are adopted as standard in these instances, this procedure should not be taken as a precedent to justify the acceptance of similar names in future. It is important that the meaning of such names is made clear where sales to the general public are concerned. In the timber trade the facts are known, and the question of misleading trade descriptions under the Trade Descriptions Act is unlikely to arise. It should not be assumed, however, that the facts are known to manufacturers or retailers in the many trades in which timber is used as a raw material, or to the general public. Accordingly, it is recommended that any use of such botanically inappropriate names is accompanied by sufficient explanation to ensure that the public is not misled.
NOTE 4 Some standard names are local names in a language of the country of origin. As an aid to the pronunciation of these names, a spelling is given in brackets below the standard name. Information on the symbols used is given in Appendix A.
3.4 Trade and local names
The trade names listed are those commonly used in commercial transactions in the United Kingdom; the local names are those which may appear on shipping documents.
NOTE I To aid international trading. European equivalents in three languages (French. Dutch and German) are given for some of the more familiar woods. Also, the standard names in the “General index of tropical timber”, widely used in Europe, arc included where appropriate. This nomenclature is issued by l’Association Technique Internationale des Bois Tropicaux and the standard names listed are indicated by the designation
NOTE 2 An index (section 4) enables the standard, trade and local names to be identified with the appropriate botanical name.
3.5 Density
An average density figure, at 15 % moisture content (m.c.), is given for each timber.
NOTE I Differences of 20 kgIm to 30 kg/ms between average densities for different timbers have little or no practical significance. Individual pieces of timber can differ appreciably in density from the average figure quoted.
NOTE 2 Some timbers, particularly those produced by a mixture of species or genera, can be particularly variable in character, including density. For such timbers, a single density figure is quoted. as variable.

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